Using the results of diagnostic tests and analysis of loads in training management (on the example of swimming)
Assumptions of swimming training
The starting point for all discussions and rational considerations regarding the assumptions of swimming training are model conditions, i.e.. answer the question: what is the starting effort in swimming and what has an impact on sports results, especially at the stage of basic preparation? Model swimming requirements are very broad and depend on the style and distance of the competition. In some simplification, you can say, that swimming training should lead to maximum efficiency of the athlete's aerobic and anaerobic energy systems [Costill, Maglischo, Richardson 1992], improve the strength and power of the swimmer [Platonov 1997] and develop efficient (effective) technique [Prichard 1993].
Systematic swimming training improves the body's efficiency and tolerance to effort. The first signs of adaptation in the macrocycle are noticeable after approx. 6-10 weeks of training. The size of adaptive changes may be regulated by the volume of performed exercises. Many top coaches and athletes believe, that only this one will be the best swimmer, who trains the most persistently. Often it is considered too, that the quantity and quality of training is synonymous with success, and the volume of km traveled is the basis of the result obtained. The speed and intensity with which you swim in a given training, it is placed in second place. This approach is reflected in the training programs, which are subordinated to the requirements of swimming competitions, and thus often make unrealistic demands on athletes. Therefore, these programs should be implemented taking into account the course of adaptation processes and the level of the individual's efficiency at a specific developmental age. Training that is too strenuous may not only bring very little results, but also, more importantly, disturbance of the adaptation processes. The adaptation of the muscular system to increased work takes place through exercises with gradually increasing loads up to the maximum load [Costill, Maglischo, Richardson 1992, Costill, Willmore 1999],
Admittedly, the level of physiological possibilities, as well as anatomical features are strongly genetically determined, however, their use requires the use of rational training solutions. Not all swimmers have similar exercise tolerance abilities, co m.in. explains how swimmers who follow similar training programs achieve different results.
There are limits to how muscles can adapt to aerobic training, and the best results can be obtained with values from 4000 do 5000 m of flowing during the day. It means, training outside of this range may adversely affect your aerobic fitness level [Costill, Maglischo, Richardson 1992, Costill, Wilmore 1999].
Modern training of high-class swimmers is characterized by extremely high loads, and reaching the maximum values in a multi-year training system is the most important factor, determining its effectiveness. Therefore, the directions should be carefully distinguished, according to which training intensification should be carried out throughout the entire sports ontogenesis.
In recent years, a lot of research has been done on the adaptive responses of high-class players. At the same time, efforts were made to develop optimal models of the state of training and take-offs, as well as reaction to training and competition loads, which can help to optimize training. The effectiveness of using such models of training optimization is particularly high in the training of adolescents. However, in the case of top-class players, their usefulness is usually lower, for the "master" is usually endowed with great potential for individual traits, which in various directions may deviate from the averaged set of indicators of model features [Platonov 1990],