Use of training resources
The essence of each training is the resource that has been used to train players. The measures used by the trainer of the students of the student section are presented in tab. 6.3.
Table 6.3. Exercise volume and intensity in the annual swimmer training cycle.
In the annual training cycle, most aerobic work was done freestyle (27,3%) and the alternating style (27,5%). Exercises to strengthen the lower limbs (12,4%) and upper limbs (10,7%) were an important element influencing the amount of work performed. In the annual cycle, Exercises to develop maximum aerobic power were also important (5,21%) and anaerobic possibilities (6,04%) on the sections sailing in an alternating style (5,21%).
In the first macrocycle, the aerobic efforts were carried out in an alternating style (31%), freestyle (25,3%) and lower limbs alternating style (11,8%). The remaining measures for shaping maximum aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are relatively low.
In the second and third macrocycle, similarly to the first one can be seen, that most of the work was done with the freestyle, variable, NNzm, RR dow. ,,Ł “in aerobic efforts. Relatively little of this work has been done on anaerobic efforts to develop maximum aerobic power.
The volume of exercises at different distances
In the annual cycle, the tested competitor, specializing in competitions 200 m and 400 m alternating style, he did a lot of work by swimming in stretches: 50 m (48,3%), 100 m (46,1%), 200 m (47,6%), 400 m (33,3%) alternating style. Freestyle also dominated the work of this player, mainly in sections 200 m (20,7%) and 400 m (27%) (Tab. 6.4).
Table 6.4. The volume of exercises at various distances in the annual cycle of training a swimmer specializing in distances 200 and 400 m
Training level changes
The results of the training assessment of the level of training presented in this section concern the swimmers of the academic section, leading players in Poland.
Assessment of aerobic capacity (PPA)
The test results show a large differentiation in the functional abilities of the tested swimmers in different periods of the macrocycle. In athletes, the threshold speed varies from 1,15 m / s in classic style to 1,45 m / s in backstroke on the first test date. In the last period of the research, this range has changed somewhat and ranged from 1,3 m/s to 1,53 m/s. Significant progress between the first and sixth tests was noticed in the classic style athlete (from 1,15 do 1,3 m/s). On the other hand, the threshold speed of a contestant of the medley style in the first test was 1,29 m/s, and in the last one 1,3 m/s. Medley and Backstroke Athletes at Speed 1,4 m / s have reached the threshold value. An individual example of changes in swimming speed at the PPA level is presented in the figure 6.4.
Figure 6.4. Athlete Swim Speed Changes (200 m word) at the threshold level of anaerobic changes in the annual training cycle.
Assessment of anaerobic capacity
The Wingate test results showed, that the relative power obtained by the swimmers fluctuated in subsequent studies from 8,13 do 10,93 W / kg and was generally lower compared to the floats, with values ranging from 10,39 do 11,39 W/kg. In the first study, the mean value of the power of swimmers was 8,44 W/kg. The best results were obtained during the third study 10,93 W/kg. The swimmers, on the other hand, obtained the best results in the first study (11,39 W/kg), which then gradually decreased. Throughout the research period, swimmers showed significantly greater power fluctuations than swimmers (Tab. 6.5).
Table 6.5. Average level of anaerobic fitness of student swimmers in the Wingate s-test (30 s RR) in the annual training cycle
Assessment of the level of sports performance
A comprehensive indicator for assessing the preparation of players is the achieved sports results. Changes within them inform about the correctness of the implementation of training tasks and the progressive stabilization of the form before the most important competitions.
In the first macrocycle, all competitors achieved the highest results during the Final of the Polish Grand Prix. And so the player K.G. achieved a result on the level 887 point, PW player. – 995 point, while competitor B.L – 814 point.
In the second macrocycle, the most important starts were participation in the WSC and ZMP. At the World Championships, the results were slightly lower than in the first macrocycle: competitor G.K achieved 827 point, PW player. 982 point, while competitor L.B. – 844 point. On the other hand, during the ZMP the competitors achieved worse results than at the World Championships.
The third macrocycle ended with participation in the European Championship, however, the swimmers performed at a lower level compared to the 1st and 2nd cycles and performed as follows: KG. – 817 point, PW, – 805 point, L.B. – 785 point.
* * *
The distribution of training loads of various types throughout the year and in individual macrocycles is one of the most complex tasks in planning preparation for major sports events. The rational structure of the swimmer's training throughout the year and in each macrocycle develops gradually, i.e.. initially, high volume and low labor intensity are realized, then the intensity increases and the volume decreases. This is an important factor in increasing athletic performance.
In the year-long work of the studied group, aerobic efforts constituted 93,4% anaerobic 6,6.
Analysis of training measures, which were used during the training, showed, that the exercises performed with alternating style predominated, any and exercises for legs and arms. Other styles like butterfly, backstroke and breaststroke were perfected with medley exercises. Depending on the distance covered, the sections were dominant 50, 100 and 200 meter.
Assessment of aerobic capacity showed a large variation in the level of functional abilities of swimmers. The threshold speed over the cycle ranged from 1,15 m / s in classic style to 1,45 m / s in the backstroke in the first test term, and in the last since 1,3 m/s to 1,53 m/s.
The results of the anaerobic capacity evaluation test showed, that during the entire study period, swimmers experienced much greater power fluctuations than swimmers. Sports results were a reflection of the test results in subsequent studies. And so in the third study (December) both the swimmers and the swimmers had a high maximum power level. During this period, he was in the Grand Prix competition, the players achieved high results. However, in subsequent studies, the level of power decreased slightly, which was reflected in the lowering of sports performance.
Looking for in-depth information about the reactions of the swimmers' body to the applied training load in selected periods of increased loads and important from the point of view of developing a sports form, the activity of creatine kinase concentration was determined to assess the direct effects of their training work.