Age-old basketball players training loads 16-18 years.
Sport for children and adolescents is a subsystem of competitive sport focused on the selection and selection of individuals predisposed to achieve the highest results in adulthood and preparing them to undertake specialized training. Sports training here falls on the period determined by the processes of growth, development and maturation. Taking these conditions into account, the aim is to develop a specific organization and methodology of training and a specific system of competition., however, subordinated to general goals, rules and laws of the development of sports championship. Sport for children and adolescents is an inseparable stage, forward-looking training process, covers its first years. Its effectiveness should not be judged on the basis of milestone achievements, but take into account only the degree of achievement of the assumed Strategic Goals.
Sport for children and adolescents is the opening phase of a long-term training process. Its course must therefore be programmed very carefully and responsibly. This is where the direction of further career development is decided. This is where the foundations of the future championship are being shaped (progressive development) or takes a solution that leads to a rapid increase in results already in adolescence (intensive development). In favor of the uniform treatment of the sports training system and the systemic approach to sports of children and adolescents within it, it is necessary to approach training programming in the same way, taking into account the adopted strategic goals and all necessary limitations resulting from the biology of development. So there is no "special" planning and "special" solutions. There is only a wise approach, resulting from the need to take into account developmental conditions and efforts to optimize training. Moving towards the heights of sports championship, one must consistently obey not only the laws governing training, but also any rules for development, health, education and upbringing. The goals and tasks in this field must also be reflected in long-term programs and plans for the first stages of training.
When designing a long-term training program, you need to be aware of the long path leading to mastery. To achieve this level, the player has been working from 8 do 10 years as part of targeted and special training. Depending on the discipline, this period may be longer (endurance disciplines) or shorter (speed disciplines). But training must always be adjusted to the regularities characteristic of the development phase of a young organism (in adult sport we are dealing with individuals with completed developmental processes). It is also necessary to take into account the phenomena of development in terms of morphology, motor skills, psychological, mental and social. Training stimuli should complement developmental phenomena and shape the system in accordance with its current capabilities, and the sports results obtained should be subordinated to the goals and the gradual and gradual achievement of the championship.
Training is a very strong set of stimuli. You have to remember, that under its influence the developing organism is rebuilt in this direction, in which we will shape it with physical exercises. When the functional limits of adaptation are exceeded, the biological balance may be disturbed, to development abnormalities and disproportions.
In the training process, particular importance must be attached to exercise loads, characteristic for various types of forms of physical activity. For methodological reasons, we define them in practice as training loads, i.e.. resulting from the training procedures implemented.
Training load (exercise) it is the amount of work of a certain type and intensity, performed by the competitor in the given exercise, training unit or cycle. They are the focus of a wealth of various reactions and processes within individual functions and organs involved in the information and energy security of work.
Training loads can be characterized by two parameters. The first is size (volume) work, quantitative characteristics of the effort. The second is intensity, qualitative component, expressing the ratio of the actual power, developed in a given movement task – to maximum power, expandable.
Looking for ways to rationalize training (also the youngest athletes) type must be taken into account first, size and structure of loads. The issue of the selection of loads (and exercise) in the subsequent stages and years of training, it is one of the basic problems. From a methodical point of view, all loads and exercises can be divided into: versatile (general development), targeted and specialized. Their proportions in the subsequent stages and cycles of training are different and serve to achieve different goals.
The increase in the sports level in the initial phases should be caused by such a set of stimuli, in which the advantages are loads and comprehensive exercises (W). After some time, when we notice symptoms of decreasing their impact on the dynamics of the increase in the result, burden and targeted measures should be given an advantage (U). This will prevent the rate of achievement improvement from slowing down. However, their impact also diminishes over time. This forces another change in the training structure, i.e.. reach for a larger number of more intensive workloads and special preparation measures (S), as well as for more intensive methods. Such a procedure is characterized by rational load increments.
Physical efforts (exercise) they use and simultaneously affect various energy sources. In adolescent training, the strategy of using variable intensity exercises is a critical issue. Taking into account the outstanding ability of adolescents to bear and adapt to heavy loads – you have to be careful all the time, that too intense and prolonged efforts would not lead to the violation of the rational proportions between the energy used in training, and the energy needed to maintain the optimal pace of development processes.