Training load registration program.
Collection of training data (recording training loads) is the methodical basis of training programming. Without reliable data on the volume and intensity of the training performed, it is impossible to rationally modify (optimize) subsequent training cycles.
For the purposes of training in SMS, we offer the method of documentation, collecting and analyzing loads developed at the Department of Sports Theory of the AWF Warsaw. It captures burdens in two categories of effort identification:
• due to the type of preparation (the so-called. information area),
• due to the impact of the load on the energy mechanisms of the system (the so-called. energy area), with the modification consisting in determining the ranges of exercise intensity.
Recording of SMS training work is also necessary from a formal point of view – is an excellent documentation of the completed training process. Especially, that the presented method is accompanied by three computer programs for its operation.
The classification of loads due to the type of training measures used takes into account three areas of impact:
1) comprehensive measures (W), developing the athlete's motor potential, However, they do not have a direct impact on the formation of specialist dispositions defined by the model of mastery of a given discipline (the so-called. general development measures);
2) targeted measures (U), primarily shaping the functional mechanisms of specialized efforts;
3) measures of a special nature (S), shaping a specific set of functional properties, fitness and movement, in accordance with the principle of progressive adaptation to take-off requirements. The starting exercises are here, special fitness exercises with the mapping of the internal and external structure of the movement of the starting exercise (be part of it), special support exercises performed while maintaining the internal or external structure of the movement of the starting exercise (or parts of it), teaching and improving techniques in exercises with the full structure of movement or its selected phases – in natural conditions and in the form of imitation exercises.
The starting point for the recording of loads are the ones developed according to these criteria, ordered sets of groups of training measures (the so-called. measure group registers), routinely used in a given discipline. The most complete collection of registers prepared in this way can be found in a collective work edited by Sozański H.. and Śledziewski D. Training loads. Documenting and processing of data ".
Performing exercises from each group included in the register takes place with different intensity, influencing specific energy mechanisms. Taking into account some difficulties in the qualification of exercises due to the type of energy sources, in practice, the principle of using the term "range of intensity”.
There are five ranges of exercise intensity (1 …5), based on the criterion of the frequency of heart contractions before and immediately after work, and taking into account the duration of exercise of a given intensity.
Here is a short description of the efforts in each area:
Range 1 – exercises performed at very low and low intensity, characterized by an HR not exceeding after work 130-140 ud./min.
Range 2 – exercise at moderate to high intensity, HR right after work 160-180 ud./min; duration of a series of single efforts – usually above 300 s (do 3 and more hours in continuous operation).
Range 3 – work with high and submaximal intensity, HR immediately after the exercise above 180 ud./min; duration of a series of single efforts – do 300 s.
Range 4 – performing the exercise at a submaximal and close to the maximum intensity; HR immediately after work greater than 190 ud./min; duration of individual efforts: 20-120 s.
Range 5 – exercises with an intensity close to the maximum and maximum; HR right after work 130-180 ud./min; the duration of individual efforts does not exceed 20 s – the time of each repetition in relation to the maximum capacity should be the main criterion for exercise intensity in that zone.
Method adopted, taking into account the direction of the impact of measures on the type of preparation (information area) and the intensity of the work carried out (impact on zones of energy transformation), in effect, it only uses one measurement indicator – sometimes. The measure of the load is the effective application time of a specific agent (without the time of rest breaks) in a given intensity zone.
Thus, the total training load is the sum of the working times for the three types of preparation (W-U-S) carried out in individual intensity ranges (1-5).
Each training cycle can thus be analyzed through the detailed load parameters expressed in units of time, a forming a specific load structure. This is a very pragmatic and measurable method of collecting data on size, structure and dynamics of realized training loads.