The problem of career development of a specific athlete today it is technologically very complex and socially delicate matter. Contemporary competitive sport poses ever higher and more complex requirements resulting from the constant, the still observed upward trend in the level of results and the increasing difficulty of sports combat. Meeting these expectations at the highest level – requires and appropriate, broadly understood personal predispositions revealed in the qualification procedure – and their rational development in a multi-annual process, rationally planned and wisely implemented training.
Not everyone can be a champion. Anyone, however, can try to be one. After all, in developed societies, sport is a common good, available in various forms, as appropriate, the interests and aspirations of the individual.
It all starts, of course, with school physical education. This is the first link in the system, permitting (next to all development and shaping functions) to arouse interest in sports. The next step is "the sport of all children", a form that allows you to try training and peer competition. Hence – already for the decisive – leads the way to youth sport. And it is here that decisions should be made about what and how in the future. Hence, the prospect of continuing "amateur" interests in "sport for all" opens up for everyone, for health and long life in fitness ". For the talented, promising and interested is the subsystem "training young people gifted in sports" and the undertaking of many years, qualified training.
These are solutions typical of developed countries, with traditions and high position of broadly understood sport in their social policy systems. They are accepted in our country as well, formulating very clearly in the government document "Strategy for the development of sport in Poland until one year 2012, goals and tasks ".
In this sense, the concept of a sports career is related to the decision to undertake training for competitive purposes (this is the entrance to the path of "youth sport"). These issues are inherently related to the shaping of knowledge about training and its effects – including, above all, long-term effects. How to search for conditions influencing career development in this complex system?
The starting point is to define the place of training of children and adolescents in the system of competitive sports. Sports championship requires a wide range of functional excellence: m.in. somatic structure, energetic and regulatory functions of the organism, properties of the psyche, profile and fitness level, technical and tactical skills – as well as theoretical knowledge. Some of these factors are highly genetically determined and the degree of their perfection as well as development prospects should be recognized already at the stage of selection and qualification, justifying the legitimacy of making decisions about competitive sports. Positive forecasting opens the training process, the duration of which from the selection phase to the achievement of the relative perfection of preparation, measured by the level of obtained results at the threshold of adulthood, designates the area of sports training for children and youth. The main difficulty here is the need to adapt to goals that are more difficult than those currently existing (increase in results, greater complexity and difficulty of sports combat in non-measurable disciplines). It is therefore necessary to take into account the forecasts and requirements for a given specialization in the perspective 6-10 years (in the training initiation phase).
In the course of the development of competitive sports, the rules of organizational and methodological solutions for training juveniles in the competitive sports system have changed.. May be accepted, that reasoned beginnings go back to the 1930s, when in the former Soviet Union the organization of the so-called. children's and youth sports schools. In the early 1950s, similar solutions were adopted in the former German Democratic Republic. This idea turned out to be very popular, and soon similar forms of the training of young athletes planned in this way were adopted (even temporarily) in many countries with different socio-political systems (m.in. France, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Because, Australia, the so-called. European socialist countries, part of the Arab countries), also in Poland.
Because the need for this type of training was formulated by practice, its beginnings were created taking into account the pragmatically understood organizational and methodological premises. The training of young people in many cases took the form of a reduced model of work of mature players and the term "early specialization" faithfully reflected the essence of things.
Parallel to the methodological solutions designed in this way, research programs in various fields of science were undertaken on a scale previously unknown in sport.. Their results widened the circle of knowledge, creating a scientific basis for training adolescents. The effect of this was a fairly rapid evolution leading to a gradual departure from the isolated treatment of sport for children and adolescents and the definition of its place and functions in a uniform system of sports training..