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Athlete's Physical Capacity Improvement System

Athlete's Physical Capacity Improvement System

The authors believe, that the development of the physical abilities of young athletes should be planned in perspective 6-8 years (preferably two Olympic cycles) and consistently implemented within the System, developed by individual Polish sports associations. According to the authors, only then is it possible to be safe, perennial, systematic, calm training of young athletes, which are best based on the organizational layout: Sports Championship School, The National Cadet Team, Juniors, Youth, National Team of Seniors.

Taking as the beginning of the activity in the System the beginning of learning at the School of Sports Championship, it is proposed to divide the process of increasing the physical abilities of girls and boys into the following stages:

I (versatile) – 16-17-year-old athletes (conventionally – cadets);

II (targeted) – 18-19-year-old athletes (conventionally-juniors);

III (special) – athletes from 20 years of life until the end of the planned development of physical abilities (conventionally – seniors).

In the table 9.1 presents changes to the most important elements of the System at the subsequent stages of the process of increasing the physical abilities of girls and boys.

System goals

The main purpose of the System at the 1st and 2nd stage of its application, covering athletes aged 16-17 i 18-19 years, is the comprehensive and targeted physical development of girls and boys. In the third stage (adult athletes) the goal is special physical preparation.

At stages I and II, the main goal formulated above also ensures the preparation of the muscular and nervous systems of girls and boys for the gradual introduction of classic training procedures in later years of the training process (methods, exercise, load, frequency and number of training units), primarily aimed at developing muscle strength and power (the so-called. dynamic force) body muscles and jumping ability.

At all stages of using the System in the preparation of young athletes included in the national teams (all age categories), it is assumed that the highest level of their physical abilities will be achieved during periods of participation in the most important professions, planned in a given training cycle. It needs to be adjusted every time, i.e.. in a given annual cycle, a physical preparation plan for the sports calendar (national competition, matches and tournaments of various ranks, central groupings, work in SMS, club etc.), developed for a specific training group. In the third stage, it is recommended to develop individual training plans in terms of physical preparation.

System Characteristics

What is the proposed System?

Complex – that is, aimed at increasing everyone, features of the muscular system determined as necessary in a given discipline / competition (local strength endurance, muscle mass, force, jumping and power) girls and boys.

Gradual – that is, it is adapted to the periods of individual life of girls and boys, and the following, training tasks they face; introducing the young athlete gradually and calmly into the next phases of physical preparation, without "shortening" and "jumping" them.

Protective – that is, minimizing the risk of overloading the athlete's movement system at every stage of his development by strictly planned systematic ones, long-term influence on the muscular and nervous system; preparing young athletes for "senior" training loads by using only such exercises and external resistance, which are adapted to the age and physical abilities of girls and boys.

Analytical – that is, distinguishing from general, the commonly used concept of strength - individual features of the muscular system necessary in a given discipline / sport competition, which are developed at appropriate times in the annual cycle.

Staged – that is, strictly ordering the specific (specific) increasing the distinguished features of the muscular system in the annual training cycle.

Continuous – that is, an introductory systematic necessity, alive- and many years of training, aimed at increasing the physical abilities of girls and boys.

Follow-up- that is, it makes it possible to make ongoing modifications in training programs based on the control and assessment of changes in the athlete's body condition (within individual training units), operational (after one or more workouts), periodic (after a given training period) and annuals (after completing the training cycle).

Changes to the main elements of the System at subsequent stages of the sports development of girls and boys

In the table 9.1 presents changes to the most important elements of the System at the subsequent stages of the process of increasing the physical abilities of girls and boys.