Directing your swimming training
Two types of information are required to guide training [Platonov, Sozanski 1991]:
• characterizing the state of various training components in the dynamics of the training process,
• characterizing the effectiveness of the applied loads, means and methods in training players at different levels of advancement.
In the process of training control, which should be an integral part of the athlete preparation process, while not interfering with training, and it should provide as much information as possible with minimal interference in the training process, we make:
• assessment of the state of the athlete's body functions at a given point in the cycle,
• comparing the test results with the previous ones, obtained from the same competitor at the previous preparation stages or on other days of the cycle,
• a comparison of the test results of a given competitor with analogous indicators of other sportsmen of this specialty with a similar or higher level of results.
All this should be related to the parameters that characterize the work performed, i.e.. to genus, the size and structure of training loads.
Solving the above problems of training management is related to conducting various research [Bolt 2000].
1. Diagnostic for e.g.. the player's aptitude structure, determining the state of development of a given feature or function.
2. Predictive by formulating a forecast of the player's development, e.g.. in sports selection.
3. Optimizing ones which are a form of a pedagogical experiment, called a model experiment, which is the variation of the exercise load as a function of time. Based on empirical data, a mathematical model is built, which can be in the form of differential equations, neural networks, genetic algorithms, etc..
Based on the above assumptions, research was conducted on swimmers of various age categories, attending schools with an extended PE program, sports schools, sports championship schools and the academic section.
In studies conducted in 1993-2003 the state of the players' fitness was diagnosed in natural or similar conditions, maintaining the specific conditions of training and competition, and also under laboratory conditions. The assessment covered, inter alia,:
1. Aerobic capacity, which was measured by the level of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the possibilities of players at the PPA level (operational control at the level of mesocycles):
• progressive treadmill test (using gas analysis, HR and speed rating),
• swimming progressive test 8×200 m (100 m) style or 4×200 m style (for players at the targeted stage).
2. Anaerobic capacity (operational control at the level of mesocycles) assessed on the basis of:
• maximum power and work in 30 s the Wingate Hand Arm Test,
• power and work in 30 s tethered swimming test.
3. Physiological indicators (based on gas analysis) and mechanical in simulated starting tasks on the Swim Bench Biometer (operational control at the level of mesocycles).
4. Creatine kinase activity (CK) in plasma (current control at the level of the training unit – examination of the so-called. prolonged effects),
5. Athletes' sports results (operational control – mesocycles, and periodic).
Only selected test trials and research results will be presented in this study.
The presented set of test studies resulted from the belief that it is advisable to show the paths leading to solutions optimizing the training process at different times and at different levels of sports advancement, i.e.. at the stage of comprehensive preparation – schools with an extended PE program, targeted – sports and special schools – sports championship school.
The above activities were aimed at searching for the relationship between the exercise load and the changes taking place in the state of the functional preparation of the athlete, i.e.. searching for ways to optimize the process of shaping sports championship [Kosmol 1999, Bolt 1998, Sozanski 1986].
Knowing already, what are the requirements of swimming training and having the tools to assess the condition of the body, you can go on to present practical solutions used in sports schools (SMS) and in club training (academic).
The presented research results concern various groups and are only intended to show the possibilities of using the analysis of training loads as well as selected indicators in terms of their practical usefulness of training management..
This study presents both the results of long-term training, as well as the typical macrocycle and solutions applied at the microcycle and training unit level.