Planning the annual training cycle - theoretical assumptions, indications for practice.
Sports training is a process of sports specialization, which, without disturbing the harmonious development of the player's personality, aims to develop these features: physical, mental and fitness, which will enable him to achieve the highest sports result.
This definition of training applies particularly to the phase of building the foundations of sportsmanship, which in an organized form is implemented in the training of players in sports championship schools.
Training is a process: purposeful, continuous, many years, systematic, well thought out, organized, scheduled, guided.
Its characteristic features are methodology, structure and control. The methodology is: methods, forms, measures and principles.
The structure is characterized by:
• stages, periodicity, periodization,
• content implemented – versatile (W), targeted (U), special (S) and their proportions,
• component-loads: volume and intensity.
They are subject to control in the training process:
• athlete's qualities, sports fight, training work,
• sports development, training cycle – periodic inspection, operational, current. In order for the training to be rationally planned and run in accordance with the presented indications, knowledge about its conditions is also necessary. These are:
• age, biological development, motor potential, talents and predispositions,
• level of training – physical fitness, technical and tactical skills,
• place in the structure – stage, cycle, period,
• sports level, competition calendar,
• cel – training, sporty – score.
The long-term training planning process follows the following sequence:
Forecast -> Program —> Plan
Each phase of the planning process meets specific requirements.
Forecasting – serves to set a real goal – sports, what is a specific sports or training result, e.g.. increasing the level of fitness, performance, mastering technical or tactical skills.
programming – it is used to determine the way of achieving the set goal, that is the schedule of further training and organizational undertakings.
Planning "right" – it serves to break down the methods, forms and means within a certain period of time – macrocycle, period, mesocycle, mikrocyklu, training unit.
Any plan, regardless of the time it covers, characterized by the following features.
1. Purposefulness – the implementation of the plan should lead to the intended goal.
2. Feasibility – coordinating the intentions with the current capabilities of the player(that).
3. Internal compliance – it should not contain contradictions and elements that prevent its implementation.
4. Readability and structural clarity – clear and understandable for both the coach and the player.
5. Flexibility – the possibility of making changes during its implementation.
6. Economical – achieving the goal with the lowest possible cost of work.
7. Variation – choosing a solution in connection with the change of training parameters.