Determinants and the importance of muscle strength in the proper development of children and adolescents.
Effectiveness in increasing muscle strength, power and other features of the muscular system (local strength endurance and muscle mass) and the jumping ability of 16-19-year-old athletes of both sexes is determined by the need to conduct this process as part of the Athlete's Physical Capacity Improvement System. Substantive and organizational assumptions of such a system, being proprietary propositions, are an integral part of this work.
In the first years of training girls and boys, regardless of the sports competition, comprehensive exercises should be used, engaging the muscles of the entire body. Particular attention should be paid to the flexing and straightening muscles of the torso, i.e.. abdomen and back. Well, proportionally developed abdominal and back muscles are the best way to prevent the lumbar spine from bending excessively forward, i.e.. deepened lumbar lordosis. Strong abdominal muscles are also the right press (intra-abdominal pressure), which protects the visceral organs of the abdominal cavity. Back muscles well developed – both the thoracic and lumbar spine – it is, along with the abdominal muscles, the best "muscle corset."” protecting the spine and preventing its pain and injuries. It is important for young athletes to develop the muscles of the lower limbs. These muscles, it is not only a necessary part of a harmonious one, "Full” silhouettes, but the basis of the smooth, various human movements, and – a condition for success in many sports. It is important to develop both straightening muscles symmetrically, and bending the lower limbs, upper and torso. Adequate, in the right proportion, the strength of antagonistic muscles is the best protection for joints against injuries. In girls, one should not forget about the parallel development of their "weakest link", i.e.. the strength of the muscles of the upper limbs, in which they stand out the most from boys.
Exercises aimed at increasing the strength capabilities of children and adolescents are an important part of their various physical activities. The need for the young person to achieve the necessary level of strength of the main muscle groups, conditioning his proper physical development – especially in the aspect of sports training – it is indisputable. For children and adolescents, subjected to systematic training, understanding the role and place of strength training at different stages of their lives is crucial for their proper physical development. This will allow the people in charge of their training to properly define them in the first place: start times and goals for increasing muscle strength, the proportion between comprehensive and specialized measures, training load range, whether exercises and methods, which can be safely used at different stages of the development of young athletes.
Various factors influence the development of a child's muscular strength from birth to adulthood. The increase in muscle strength in children before puberty is primarily the result of the development of the nervous system and the associated improvement in intermuscular coordination (mainly the interaction of agonist and antagonist muscles). Pre-pubertal boys have testosterone levels (an anabolic-androgenic hormone) is too low, to contribute to a marked increase in the thickness of the muscle fibers (hypertrophy) and in effect – muscle cross-sectional area, which determines muscle strength. During this period, the adaptation of the nervous system to training stimuli, the expression of which is an increase in activation (agitation) motor units, appears to be the main factor in increasing the muscle strength of children involved in sports. At this stage, influenced by both systematic training, and the rapid pace of individual development, the amount of adipose tissue is reduced, by which the share of the so-called. lean body increases in total body weight. Muscular strength, as is your aerobic capacity, for example, significantly depends on lean body mass. The increase in testosterone levels during puberty is accompanied by the increase in size (thickness) muscle fibers, which has a significant impact on the rapid development of the ability to increase muscle strength.
During these years of the development of the young athlete, both exercise variety, as well as the time spent on improving overall physical fitness should be as high as possible. Parallel, calm and accurate teaching of the technique of a given discipline / competition, but without too far-reaching specialization, should complete a comprehensive training process. At this stage of sports development, choosing the so-called. early specialization, which often involves copying the training of adult masters, leads to commonly known effects. Mostly, especially in gifted individuals, there is rapid progress in sports results in terms of children and adolescents, and then… no significant results in the senior category. It is often accompanied by both physical exhaustion of a young athlete (injuries, permanent damage to the locomotor system, no progress in physical preparation), and mental (reluctance to exercise, weakening or complete loss of motivation in the pursuit of self-improvement, problems in the field of motor coordination). Current knowledge and many years of training experience clearly indicate this, that achieving a high sports level on the basis of comprehensive preparation enables better use of the "impact force" of specialized training.