Changes in the activity of creatine kinase (CK) in the plasma of swimmers during the special preparation subperiod.
Most often, in diagnostic tests, researchers focus on the direct response to exercise, e.g.. with what intensity the exercise was performed. The most important problem in training is the fatigue process, i.e.. reaction to effort, and the rest phase, during which the compensation processes take place. The assessment of the course of recreational processes in the training of swimmers is one of the most important problems of rational training, especially, when players train from 2-4 times a day.
The activity of creatine kinase in plasma was used to assess the state of the organism, an enzyme found mainly in skeletal muscle, the level of which clearly reflects the muscle response to the applied loads [Hubner-Woźniak E., Lerczak K., Blach W., Borkowski L. 1996],
Relationships between training loads were searched for (volume and intensity) and the activity of creatine kinase in the plasma of swimmers and to what extent the CK activity in the plasma can characterize the degree of overload of the body with physical effort, i.e.. under the influence of the applied training loads?
The research was conducted on 10 swimmers of the academic section in the sub-period of special preparation for the summer Polish Championships.
Every morning before training, for one microcycle, blood was drawn from the ear lobe and the CK activity was determined. The results of the plasma CK activity determinations are presented in the table 6.6.
The first CK determination was made on Monday (1.06) in the morning before starting training for a new developing microcycle. The baseline CK activity ranged from 126 (competitor of Ch.P) do 291 U / l (for W.R.) (tab. 6.6), exceeding the norm of rest in all respondents (10-80 U / l). This was probably due to the participation of the swimmers tested in 3- a day-long competition for the Polish Grand Prix preceding the current research (29-31.05).
Particularly high activities of CK were recorded in the competitor of W.P (coming to 400 U / l), where it grew to 3 day of the microcycle, and then lowered to the end of the microcycle. One-day rest break (Sunday) caused a decrease in the activity of this enzyme to a level similar to that of other competitors.
Table 6.6. Results of determination of creatine kinase activity (CK) in the plasma of swimmers in the sub-period of special preparation for MP
The results of the CK activity determinations (average values) on the background of the volume of swimming (w km) they indicate, that 4 on the day of the microcycle, changes in swimming volume were proportional to CK activity, i.e.. the increase in the volume of swimming was accompanied by an increase in the activity of the enzyme and vice versa (dig. 6.5).
Figure 6.5. Changes in CK activity (average values) on the background of the volume of swimming (km) players of the academic section in the sub-period of special preparation for the MP.
W 5 i 6 During the day, despite the decrease in swimming volume, the level of CK activity increased. You can suppose, that there was an overlapping of fatigue and difficulties in fully compensating for it. From 1 do 5 The test swimmers trained in the microcycle 2-3 times a day, while 6 only once a day, while 7 was a day of rest. After the break (beginning of the 2nd microcycle) CK activity was almost two times lower (106 U / l) compared to the baseline study results at the beginning of the week (176 U / l). In the following three training days, the increase in the swimming volume corresponded to the increases in CK activity. In the training assumptions of the trainer, the highest loads were applied on Tuesday and Thursday. CK activity peaked on Wednesday, Friday and Saturday. Thus, the effect of the applied training loads can be considered as consistent with the assumptions of the trainer.
Although the research results indicate a correlation between CK and swimming volume, it was statistically insignificant. Individual can be noticed, often significant differences between the tested swimmers.
It is also worth noting, that the CK activity at the beginning of the microcycle was significantly lower than that of the baseline, which indicates, that the day off had contributed to full restitution. All subjects (except for the CH.P) reacted with an increase in CK activity (9.06) on the load applied on the first day of the microcycle (dig. 6.6).
Figure 6.6. Changes in plasma CK activity in studies of academic section floats in the sub-period of special preparation for MP.
The results of the conducted research indicate that it is possible to assess the regenerative capacity of swimmers, and thus indirectly, the athletes' response to applied training loads based on measurements of plasma CK activity.
Different reactions of some players indicate the need for individual training solutions, taking into account the modification of the type of applied loads with physical effort.
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From the Olympic Games in Moscow (1980) Polish swimmers win medals at the world's greatest events. Initially, these were the effects of the functioning of sports championship schools. Concentration of material means, of the coaching staff and, above all, the most talented youth, has resulted in better and better results. It was mainly the result of changes in the training process. Annual charges increased to 3 000 km and more, and only a few competitors were able to cope with such requirements. The increasing number of text messages in the 1980s, as well as the sports schools operating at the base, as well as classes with an extended PE program were to be the nucleus of the Polish swimming system, yes in terms of performance, and health (mass sport). It did not happen, and the functioning of SMS in the years 90 turned out – due to their declining level – the area of selecting players for American clubs. The training of Polish swimmers in the United States shed a different light on the training process, both in terms of physical, and psychological preparation. Polish trainers also changed their approach to training from quantitative to qualitative, from group training to shaping outstandingly talented individuals. There were significant losses of talented youth in their age 16-18 years, and progress in performance over this period has often been slower.
Seems, that by using such detailed descriptions of the training work of adolescent players and control indicators, it is possible to rationally plan the swimmer's sports development, taking into account both the laws of biological development, which involves the rational use of the energy potential of a growing organism, as well as the formulation of training goals and optimization of the training loads necessary to achieve them.
Against this background, it is worth considering standardizing the set of tests to assess the fitness state and swimming techniques of players in all SMS and introduce them as obligatory. In this way, the preparation of players training in different centers could be compared. At the same time, any coach could additionally (if he sees the need) use, apart from tests and obligatory tests, other own tests.