Analysis of training in the macrocycle of preparing swimmers for ME
Another example illustrating the mechanism of preparing Polish swimmers for the most important events is the analysis of the annual training cycle from the point of view of effectiveness, which was measured by changes in the functional abilities of players under the influence of the applied training and competition loads.
The year-round cycle of players preparation has been divided into three macro-cycles:
I (IX-XII), II (I-III), III (IV-VII). Such a division was conditioned by gradual growth, in individual macrocycles, the size of the share of special work and its total volume and losses.
The first macrocycle ended with the national competition of swimming versatility, the second with the Winter Polish Championships, the third with the Polish Summer Championships and the European Championships. The analysis of training loads was based on the work done by the multiple Polish Champion.
In the yearly cycle, the athlete went to 394 trainings in total 2145,05 km.
In individual macrocycles, these values were as follows: 1-140 training sessions (769,65 km), 11-101 training sessions (568,175 km), III – 153 workouts (807,227 km) (tab. 6.2).
Table 6.2. Structure of swimmer's training loads in the annual training cycle.
In the annual training cycle, the loads influencing the aerobic power dominated 77,2% (552,4 km) and oxygen capacity 50,3% (361 km). The swimming technique was devoted to 17,1% (119.75 km). In all 3 the cycles were dominated by aerobic loads (I macrocycl – 46,5%, II – 41,2% i III – 39,8%), while the amount of exercises devoted to the technique was correspondingly: I – 2,3%, II – 7,5%, Ili – 7,3%. In the second and third cycles, the time needed to work on the technique significantly increased, which would indicate, that the implementation of special tasks focused on motor skills was closely related to the control of swimming technique.
In the first macrocycle, training to shape aerobic power was the dominant one (31,3%) and oxygen capacity (15,2%). Warm-ups played a large part in the global working time (14,2%) and exercises to prepare the body for the main tasks (13,6%). The other components of the structure were as follows: speed 2,4%, exercises at the threshold of anaerobic changes 5,6%.
If we compare macrocycle I with II and III, these values do not change much. Element, which played an important role in training, the already mentioned increase in working time on the technique (w II-7.5%, w III-7.3%). In both macrocycles, similar to i, devoted to aerobic work approx. 40% time (II – 41,2%, a w III-39.8%).
In the first macrocycle, sustained efforts had the advantage, because until v 93,7% energy was drawn from oxygen sources. However, swimming at maximum intensity, carried out on starting sections (200 and 400m medley), amounted to 3,6%. In the second macrocycle, these values were as follows: oxygen energy sources 93,3%, anaerobic 1,8%, and ATP-PC 4,9% while in III, respectively: 93,2%, 2,2%, 4,6%.
In the second and third macrocycles, the values of maximum work intensity increased slightly. This was due to the greater number of starts of the competitor preparing in the second macrocycle for the World Championships and the Polish Winter Championships, and in the third to the European Championship. Hence, the training loads contained a large number of exercises of maximum intensity, preparing the body for racing efforts.
It is also worth noting, that the intensity of the work, as performed in the first macrocycle, reveals a huge share of aerobic power building exercises (71,4%). Against this background, much less work has been done to shape the oxygen capacity (23%). In the second macrocycle, labor indicators changed rapidly, i.e.. oxygen capacity has increased (do 31,7%), and work on oxygen power has decreased (61,9%). In the third macrocycle, the working time shaping the oxygen power did not change and was the same as in the second cycle, on the other hand, the duration of exercises that shape the aerobic capacity has slightly increased (32%).