Analysis of training in swimming at different stages of training.
Swimming training is subject to the general rules of phased preparation, i.e.. from versatile to targeted to special. In addition to physical preparation on land and in water – an equivalent component is technical and tactical preparation. Training accents change depending on the stage, period or mesocycle.
In the research conducted at various stages of the training, the picture of the total loads (TR) it usually tended to be upward (dig. 6.1). Swimming loads during the year in the youngest groups amounted to approx. 300 h, and in seniors, approx. 600 h. The number of training hours was reflected in the number of completed training sessions in the respective age groups.
Comprehensive loads (W) tended to increase in the first stages of training and were: for 10-year-olds 68 h (22% TR loads), 11-year olds – 92 h (26%), 12-13-year olds – 103 h (29%), for seniors – 35 h (6,5%). This type of burden accounted for approx 25% total load (TR) in young swimmers, while in the senior group, respectively, only 6,5% TR values.
Targeted loads (At) characterized by the smallest fluctuations within the analyzed age categories and were respectively: 173 h (57% TR loads), 203 h (52%), 172 h (50%), 200 h (36%). The share of this type of work was similar at all stages and occupied approx. 50% TR loads in the younger groups and 36% in the senior group.
Figure 6.1. The amount of training loads in swimming at different levels of training (by type of work).
In special loads (S) there was a significant difference between the younger groups and the senior group. These loads were respectively: 38 h (12% TR loads), 62 h (16%), 56 h (16%), 309 h (56%), which was consistent with the specificity of swimming training.
In the first years, emphasis was placed on comprehensive preparation, including swimming – and then a style and distance specialization.
An important element in swimming training was its qualitative side, i.e.. share of loads in different intensity ranges (dig. 6.2, Tab. 6.1). Support loads (T-|) they were similar in younger age groups, respectively: 67 h (22% TR loads), 70 h (16%), 65 h (20%), while in the senior group 20 h (3,8%). The differences resulted from the tasks performed. And so in the younger groups the load T-| they mainly concerned teaching and improving swimming techniques and starting jumps and were equal: 4,5 h (1,5%), 1,5 h (0,5%), 22 h (6%), 0,5 h (0,1%).
Table 6.1. Training loads of Polish swimmers at various stages of training according to intensity ranges.
Figure 6.2. The amount of training loads in swimming at different levels of training (intensity ranges).
Loads in 2 intensity range (T2), being the basis for shaping the overall strength, contain a significant part of the total loads, and at the same time they remained constant in the youngest groups and amounted to correspondingly: 162 h (50% TR loads), 181 h (46%), 163 h (47%), and only in the senior group 74 h (13,5%). In the latter case, the purpose of applying these loads was mainly to maintain the level of general strength.
Loads in 3 intensity range (T3) were associated with the formation of special strength, strength and tempo. This type of work was dominant in the senior group – 432 h (80%). In the younger groups it was shorter and amounted to, respectively: 65 h (21%), 109 h (28%) and 80 h (23%)
W 4 intensity range (T4), in the youngest groups the load was: 12 h (4% TR loads) at the age of 10 years, 36 h (10%) at the age of 11 years, 26 h (7%) at the age of 12-13 years. The size registered in the senior group 15 h (2,7%) it was a very low value, regarding the fact, that this kind of work is the basis of the startup efforts to 200 m.
W 5 intensity range (T5), based on the maximum intensity (speedy), were carried out in the analyzed age categories, respectively: 6 h (1,9% TR), 7 h (1,8%), 13 h (3,77%) and 2,5 h (0,5%).
Physical preparation is an important part of swimmer training, especially the level of strength training. The loads were as follows: in 10-year-olds – 10 h (3,5% TR), in 11-year-olds – 36 h (9%), in 12-13 year olds – 20 h (7%) and at senior age 15 h (2,9%).