A three-year high school-level sports training program – a proposal of comprehensive solutions
Training program in a sports high school, Sports Championship School (SMS), covers (In most cases) fundamental career piece – turn of the junior and senior age. Sports activities in SMS should be designed in this way, on the one hand, to encourage the most talented people to become the best in competitive sports, and on the other, create a real functional, technical and tactical foundation for the actual championship. He should serve that purpose – first – rational and feasible long-term training program.
A talented student's stay in SMS falls, depending on the discipline and gender, to an often different part of the multi-year training process (the so-called. sports ontogenesis). Age range for many disciplines 15-19 years may mean different sports goals and tasks, as well as a different strategy and specificity of the training. In the table 3.1 shows the approximate age of starting training in various sports disciplines, and in the table 3.2 the age zones of the first significant successes. Such references are fundamental in building a training program for a sports high school.
The problem of the dynamics of sports development is closely related to the issue of staging in training. Experience in this area is enormous and most Authors are in favor of it at least 3-4 stages of training (Sozanski 1986, Raczek 1991, Naglak 1991, Platonov 1997):
1) stage of comprehensive training,
2) stage of targeted training,
3) stage of specialist training and (in most solutions)
4) stage of master training, often referred to as the achievement stabilization stage.
Each of these stages has precisely defined goals and sports and training tasks, with a very strong preference for the so-called. progressive training (Sozanski 1986).
Table 3.1. Approximate age of starting training in groups of comprehensive preparation for individual disciplines.
The staging of training understood in this way is nothing else, how is the path to the championship in a given sport discipline described in the program. Way, which can be overcome at an individual pace (what determines the scale of the athlete's talent), but which must have a scientific and methodical basis. There are three key issues in this area, which must be defined and developed in each sport:
1) determination of the basic indicators of sports championship, the so-called. master model,
2) methodical definition of the stages and selection criteria,
3) defining a strategy for long-term training and sports competition.
Table 3.2. Age zones of first successes in sport.
The basic features that characterize the master model are:
• age of best performance and trends in its change,
• somatic structure – height, body weight and composition, type of construction, e.t.c.,
• level of fitness preparation, mainly leading motor skills,
• technical preparation, e.g.. range of techniques in the attack and defense phase,
• tactical preparation, e.g.. number of variants and tactical patterns,
• mental preparation, e.g.. level of motivation, personality structure or will characteristics (Important 1997, Bolt 2000).
In each case, however, it is worth taking into account the individual predispositions of athletes, which do not always have to fit within the pragmatic framework of the "master model". This model determines the direction of the training, as well as the direction of the search for the right candidates – however, there is always a margin of significant compensation of the level of some features with higher values of other skills, which often creates a completely new set of model values.
The master model also sets the direction of selection activities. From who you will work with in sport, the potential for success often depends. Selection is difficult, complex and long-term process, perfectly described in professional literature (Burns 1996, Volkov 1997, Zaporozhyenov 1997, Sozanski 1999, Śledziewski 2001). Here we only recall the three basic canons of this issue: types, stages and selection criteria (table 3.3).
Table 3.3. Types, stages and selection criteria occurring in competitive sport